'Kitāb Gharāʾib al-funūn wa-mulaḥ al-ʿuyūn' / The Book of Curiosities of the Sciences and Marvels for the Eyes
the oldest extant rectangular map of the world.
Kitāb Gharāʾib al-funūn wa-mulaḥ al-ʿuyūn, known as the Book of Curiosities. The manuscript is a copy, probably made in Egypt in the late 12th or early 13th century, of an anonymous work compiled in the first half of the 11th century in Egypt. The treatise is extraordinarily important for the history of science, especially for astronomy and cartography, and contains an unparalleled series of diagrams of the heavens and maps of the earth. (x)